Advance Happy Deepavali wishes to you…

Deepavali is just round the corner… every one of us is going to celebrate Deepavali ..the festival of lights….
Wish you happy and joyful deepavali… fire the crackers and enjoy the festival with joy and utmost care…

Shashi Kumar
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“Be Nothing Less Than The Best”

Incredible Roman Arena of Nimes and its Ancient City

For nearly 2,000 years an imposing Roman amphitheatre has dominated the French city of Nimes — the capital of Gard Department on the edge of Provence — dating back to around 70 A.D. The Arena of Nimes is a testament to the degree of perfection achieved by Roman
engineers in designing and constructing extremely complex buildings such as these, and the best preserved amphitheatre of the Roman era.

The monumental Roman building encloses an elliptical central space of 435 feet (133 meters) long by 330 feet (101 meters) wide, ringed by 34 rows of seats supported by a vaulted construction. It was constructed of stones from two quarries near the town — Barutel and Roquemaillere.

The front of the building consists of 2 levels of 60 over-and-under arches and an attic, separated by a cornice. Massive stones overhang at the top which were drilled to support long poles that suspended a huge canvas over the arena, providing protection for the spectators against the sun and foul weather.


One passes through the terraces to the interior galleries via the arena, opening to an overall view of the architecture and the history of the Nîmes Arena — 34 rows of “cavea” (terraces), which are supported by semi-circular vaults, bearing seating capacity for an audience of 16,300.

Beneath these vaults are 5 circular galleries and 162 stairwells and corridors, leading to the terraces for quick access to spectator seats to watch the games, gladiator fights and Venatio –animal hunts — which were open to everyone.

Inscriptions in stone have revealed that the boatmen of the Rhone and the Saone had seats reserved for their corporation. The lowest terraces were reserved for the town’s dignitaries and important people. The town’s citizens were seated in the intermediary terraces and the ordinary people and slaves viewed the battles from the upper terraces.

The amphitheatre was designed so that all had a clear view of the entire arena. Several galleries were located beneath the arena, accessed by trap doors and a hoist-lift system that provided entrance to the arena for the animals and gladiators during the games.

History of the Arena of Nimes
Prior to the Romans, the Celts established a settlement in Nimes. During the rule of Julius Caesar and Emperor Augustus the city grew in importance.

As the Empire fell, the amphitheater was fortified by the Visigoths and surrounded by a wall. During the turbulent years that followed the collapse of Visigoth power in Hispania and Septimania, not to mention the Muslim invasion and re-conquest by the French kings in the early 18th century, the viscounts of Nimes constructed a fortified palace within the amphitheater.

A small neighborhood later developed within its confines, complete with 100 denizens and 2 chapels. 700 people lived within the amphitheater during the height of its service as an enclosed community.

The buildings remained in the amphitheater until the 18th century, when the decision was made to convert the amphitheater into its present form.

The Arena was once the setting for gladiatorial battles, but today it’s matadors who fascinate their audiences during the Whitsuntide Féria.

Remodeled in 1863 to serve as a bullring, the Arena of Nimes not only hosts 2 annual bullfights, it’s also the scene for other public events such as concerts and operas. Since 1989 it’s had a movable cover and a heating system.

City of Nimes
Nimes — or “Nemausus” as the Romans named their colony — developed into an important center. In the 2nd century A.D. emperors Hadrian and Antonius Pius ordered the construction of 2 further splendid buildings, enriching the town with fine architecture. It was located on the Via Domitia, a Roman road constructed in 118 B.C, connecting Italy to Spain.

The Maison Carrée in Nimes

Pont du Gard from the north bank.

The Temple of Diane.

The city is known for its many well-preserved Roman structures, including:

• The Maison Carrée from the 1st century A.D. built in a Greek style as a temple and now housing a museum of Roman sculpture, and the only completely preserved Roman temple in the world.

• The Pont du Gard from late 1st century B.C. or early 1st century A.D. — a famous aqueduct.

• Near the city is the Tour Magne, a tower likely built in the 1st century B.C.

• The Temple of Diana from the 2nd century A.D.

• Also of note is the Cathedral of Saint Castor which began in the 11th century.

Today the beautiful view from the most highly elevated seats of the Amphitheatre extends across the rooftops of the picturesque old town of Nimes and its 2,000 years of glorious history.

The Porta Augusta.

The Castellum divisorium on the aquaduct.

Les Quais de la Fontaine, the embankments of the spring that provided water for the city,
the first civic gardens of France, were laid out in 1738-55.

The city gets its name from the Nemausus spring in the Roman village. The contemporary symbol and shield of the city of Nimes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription ‘COLNEM,’ an abbreviation of ‘Colonia Nemausus’ — meaning the ‘colony’ or ‘settlement’ of Nemausus.

The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city. In the 3rd to 2nd century B.C. a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of The Tour Magne. The Wars of Gaul and the fall of Marseille in 49 B.C. allowed Nimes to regain its autonomy under Rome.

It became a Roman colony some time before 28 B.C, and some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nimes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory.

Palais de Justice.

Nimes Eglise Ste. Perpétue et Ste. Felicite.

Nimes Eglise Ste. Perpétue et Ste. Felicite.

Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts 3.7 miles (6 kilometers) long, reinforced by 14 towers, with gates of which 2 remain today — the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France. The city had an estimated population of 60,000.

He had the Forum built, and an aqueduct was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where this crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins the spectacular Pont du Gard was built, 12 miles (20 kilometers) northwest of the city.

Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nimes after 15 years of soldiering.

Nothing remains of certain monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium, and perhaps a circus.

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Regards, Shashi Kumar
Copyright © All rights reserved. Be Nothing Less Than The Best ™

18 Means for Living Below Your Means

Live Below Your Means

Live a comfortable life, not a wasteful one. Do not spend to impress others. Do not live life trying to fool yourself into thinking wealth is measured in material objects. Manage your money wisely so your money does not manage you. Always live well below your means.(A penny saved is a penny earned. – Benjamin Franklin)

  1. Redefine your definition of “rich”. – “I remember sitting in a cubicle at my first professional job staring at a picture of an SUV I wanted to buy (and eventually did). Now, I sit in my office and look at the pictures of my kids, and just outside my window I can see the beater I drive sitting in the company parking lot. What a difference a decade makes! To sum things up, my definition of being rich is having enough money to meet my family’s basic needs, a few of our wants, and to be able to give some away to others.” – via Frugal Dad
  2. Borrow and share. Everyone wins! – “We borrowed a DVD from a friend instead of renting or buying and had a little snack from our own fridge! Way cheaper than using gas to drive to the theater/rental place, paying for a movie, and paying for a snack.” – via My Dollar Plan
  3. Avoid the mall. – “Going to the mall is not entertainment! We used to go when we were bored. Of course, we usually ended up spending money while we were there. If you need clothes, then shop sales or go to stores that offer name-brands at a discount. You can save a ton on these items if you are a smart shopper. Dave Ramsey says, “Never pay retail!” We probably save $15 to $30 per month by staying away from the mall.” – via My Super-Charged Life
  4. Limit your intake of advertisements. – “Advertising sucks. That’s the cold, hard truth. It’s engineered to make you feel like you’re incomplete, that you have an unfulfilled need, that you’re not good enough.” – via On Simplicity
  5. Buy with cash. – “You can’t spend money you don’t have. Many bank accounts provide overdraft protection, so even with a debit card, it’s easier to go over your account balance than you think.” – via Simple Mom
  6. Find a better deal and actually SAVE the difference. – “Regardless of what they sell, if you’ve switched companies for price reasons, save the difference. Think of phone companies, internet access, cell phones, credit cards, and others.” – via The Wisdom Journal
  7. Adhere to a long-term investment strategy. – “I’m a long-term investor. The stock portion of my portfolio is spread over several mutual funds, a few ETFs and a few inpidual stocks. Each and every one of these holdings was carefully chosen, after thorough research. I believe in these stocks and funds. I consider them as my best bet in growing my money – LONG TERM.” – via MomGrind
  8. Curb your consumerism! – “Have you ever watched how a child can play with a cardboard box for hours, and leave the toy that came in it by the wayside? How is it that children can enjoy themselves without a lot of “stuff”, but we as adults feel the need to reward ourselves by buying more stuff?” – via Billionaire Woman
  9. Stay Healthy! Medical problems drain bank accounts. – “James M. Rippe, M.D is a best-selling author, world-renowned cardiologist, and founder of the Rippe Lifestyle Institute. He explains that if you look at all the risk factors for dying, the one that is most predictive is fitness level. In addition, an older person with high cardiovascular fitness is healthier than a younger person who is physically inactive. By increasing your fitness level, you can actually roll back your biological clock.” – via Abundance Blog
  10. Stay in and relax. – “So, think about it the next time you go out. Are you going for with a purpose? Maybe the solution is to not go out at all. Stay home and save! Save up for something you really want or need.” – via The Jungle of Life
  11. Gradually prepare yourself for a rainy day. – “Even when things are going great, and you feel on top of the world, you must always be prepared for a change. If you take the time and patience to set yourself up properly, then when things to take a turn for the worse, you will be prepared to handle it. If you live above your means, then when the slightest change occurs, you will not be prepared to adapt. Financial flexibility is more important then keeping up with the Jones’.” – via Yin vs. Yang
  12. Stop competing. Forget about the Jones’ altogether. – “If getting rich makes us happy, then why don’t countries as a whole get happier as they grow wealthier? They discovered that as a country gets wealthier there’s no overall increase in happiness. Why? We continually compare our wealth against that of others. We are competitive and envious. Add to that the fact that Western countries encourage people to strive for more and more, and you have a formula that spins many into depression.” – via Color Your Life Happy
  13. Get out of the “easy street” mentality. – “I think there is too much emphasis on the quick fix or the easy option in today’s society. For example taking diet pills to lose weight instead of the “hard option” – exercising and eating well…. money is sometimes being used as a substitute for hard work. Do you think there is an increasing expectation that you can get want you want by throwing money around instead of working hard and “earning” it? – via Forever Change
  14. Avoid impulse buying. Buy things you truly need. – “Don’t you just love the excitement you feel after coming home with a new TV? Driving home in a new car? Opening the box on a new pair of shoes? I sure do. But, from watching the behavior of myself and my friends I’ve found that the new quickly becomes just another item. The excitement of novelty passes quickly.” – via Think Simple Now
  15. Time is money. Properly manage your time. – “The fewer tasks you have, the less you have to do to organize them. Focus only on those tasks that give you the absolute most return on your time investment, and you will become more productive and have less to do. You will need only the simplest tools and system, and you will be much less stressed. I think that’s a winning combination. Focus always on simplifying, reducing, eliminating. And keep your focus on what’s important. Everything else is easy.” – via LifeDev
  16. Find ways to give without spending. – “Want a quick, easy and (almost) free way to be guaranteed that you’ll make someone’s day special? Send them a letter. Why not set aside some time this weekend to sit down and write to a few people? If you don’t enjoy writing, try buying some nice postcards of your home town. If you’ve got an artistic streak, why not design your own note cards? You don’t have to write a long letter for it to be effective. It’s the thought that counts and the personal touch that makes it special.” -via Dumb Little Man
  17. Don’t let greed and deceit get the best of you. – “According to Stephen R. Covey, if you reach an admirable end through the wrong means it will ultimately turn to dust in your hands. This is due to unintended consequences that are not seen or evident at first. The example he gives in The 8th Habit is: The parent who yells at their kids to clean their rooms will accomplish the end of having a clean room. But this very means has the potential to negatively affect relationships, and it is unlikely the room will stay clean when the parent leaves town for a few days. Now, to return to the topic of wealth, I think it is possible to see much of the world’s current financial problems as stemming from people who wrongly believe the ends justify the means. My advice? It is fine to aspire to wealth, but don’t lose sight of the means to accomplishing it.” – via The Change Blog
  18. Never ever pay retail. – “You can easily save hundreds of dollars a year on clothing purchases by waiting for sales or shopping at discount retailers like Marshalls. Better yet, avoid name brand clothing all together.” – via Marc and Angel Hack Life 🙂

Thanks for visiting My Blog. Keep Visiting and give your Valuable Comments.

Regards, Shashi Kumar

Copyright © All rights reserved. Be Nothing Less Than The Best ™

India’s moon mission unveiled

ISRO’S SCREEN PRESENCEIt was truly a historic moment for the entire country. The PSLV-C11, which carries India’s first unmanned moon spacecraft Chandrayaan-1, was successfully put into initial orbit from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Wednesday morning at around 6.40 am.At the end of the 49-hour countdown, the 44.4 meter tall four-stage PSLV-C11 blasted off from the second launch pad with the ignition of the core first stage at 6.22 am.

ISROIndia’s first unmanned moon mission, Chandrayan-1 is a success and history has been written on October 22. Amidst joy and pride, the Indian Space Research Organisation is already looking forward to the year 2015 when it plans on having India’s first manned space flight. ISRO Chairman Madhavan Nair, who was beaming with pride, told a crowded press conference three hours after the launch of Chandrayan-1 that they were planning on sending two humans into space (low earth orbit). At present, they are devising a capsule to ensure that this project is a success.This is a bit challenging, Nair said, adding that ISRO had already prepared a project report and hoped that this mission became a reality by 2015. The ISRO chairman further added a new facility will be set up to undertake the manned mission. Apart from a training centre in Bangalore, a new launch pad in Shriharikota will also be set up, he added. The space agency will use the GSLV to undertake the manned space flight, Nair said, adding that the rocket required design modification and that the tolerable failure rate should be 1 out of 100.He said the natural next destination would be to mars and added that the GSLV was capable of carrying a spacecraft to Mars. ISRO is expected to undertake the mission to Mars by 2012. Chandrayan, which is being launched at a total cost of Rs 386 crore, is also scheduled to carry 11 payloads, which would include those from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Sweden, Japan, Germany and Bulgaria. Dr Alex further pointed out that the technology used for the Chandrayan mission is ten times better than other countries. Moreover, ISRO excels in remote sensing and imaging and hence the moon can be photographed from a close range of five metres from the ground

Chandrayaan-I, India’s first unmanned moon mission satellite vehicle, successfully blasted off at 6.22 am on October 22, 2008, from the second launch pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, some 80 km from Chennai,catapulting the country into the select club that have sent missions to the moon, after the US, former Soviet Union, European Space Agency, China and Japan. Blazing a bright orange plume, the 44-metre-tall 316-tonne PSLV started to move into its designated orbit within minutes, to launch Chandrayaan into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO).From the GTO the satellite’s onboard liquid apogee motor (LAM) will be fired to take it to the lunar orbit – 387,000 km from earth – around November 8.Chandrayaan is world’s 68th moon mission Once the 1,380-kg Chandrayaan gets near the moon its speed will be reduced to enable the gravity of the moon to capture it into an elliptical orbit.At the earliest possible opportunity Chandrayaan will drop its Moon Impact Probe (MIP) which will land on the moon’s soil carrying India’s flag, among many scientific instruments. After that, the spacecraft will also activate its cameras and other instruments on board.Chandrayaan will orbit the moon for two years. It carries 11 experimental payloads, five Indian and six from the European Space Agency (3), the US (2) and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1).The project is expected to prepare a three-dimensional atlas of the moon and prospect its surface for natural resources, including uranium, a coveted fuel for nuclear power plants, according to the Indian Space Research Organization. India’s first unmanned flight to the moon blasted off from Sriharikota, off the Andhra Pradesh coast, early morning on 22 Oct ’08(Wednesday). The launch was perfect and the space vehicle is now in the orbit, cruising around earth…

Indian Space Research Organization scientists viewed on a television screen are seen congratulating each other after the successful launch of Chandrayaan-1

Chandrayaan (“moon vehicle”) plans to map a three-dimensional atlas of the moon, and the surface’s chemical and mineral composition. * The rocket carries 11 payloads — five from India, two from the USA, and one each from Germany, Britain, Sweden and BulgariaChandrayaan-1, India’s maiden lunar mission is seen soon after the launch, rocketing the satellite up into the pale dawn sky.

## Indian Space Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, second left, and his colleagues hold a model of India’s maiden lunar mission Chandrayaan-1

* In 1959, the sphere-shaped Soviet spacecraft Luna 1 became the first spacecraft to orbit the moon. * India started its space programme in 1963, developing its own satellites and launch vehicles to reduce dependence on overseas agencies. India’s constellation of seven earth-observation satellites is the largest in the world.
## At least 16 Indian satellites currently orbit the earth, supporting telecommunications, TV broadcasting, earth observation, weather forecasting, remote education and healthcare.About 1,000 scientists have worked on the project for four years.

The Chandrayaan-1 is carrying 11 payloads, five entirely designed and developed in India, three from European Space Agency, one from Bulgaria and two from US, which would explore the moon.In his message soon after the launch, Madhavan Nair said this was a historic moment for India.

“The first leg has gone perfectly and today we have started a remarkable journey to the moon. We have fought all odds which include heavy rains and thunderstorms since the past four days to ensure that this mission is a success. We will complete the journey in the next 15 days.”The other men behind the mission, who were obviously elated by the success of the launch, too spoke after the successful launch. They said phase-1 had been completed successfully and for phase-2, the next team would take over.We have spent sleepless nights and today our baby is on the way to the moon. Fifteen days from now, we will reach our destination and for the next two years the Chandrayaan will do its job in exploring the mysteries of the moon. We are ready for many more challenges and we must say that this has been a thrilling experience,” he said.

The 1380-kg Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft will first reach a highly elliptical Initial orbit and thereafter the satellite’s Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) will be fired at appropriate moments that will finally take it to an orbit at a height of 100 km around the moon around November eight.Chandrayaan-1 carries 11 payloads (scientific instruments) — five from India, three from ESA, two from the US and one from Bulgaria. It aims to undertake remote-sensing of the moon in the visible, near infrared, microwave and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. With this, preparation of a three-dimensional atlas of the lunar surface is envisaged.”The mission will lead to detailed understanding of the mineralogy of the moon, and (possibility of) abundance of Helium-3 said to be a relatively clean fuel for future nuclear fusion reactors,” an ISRO official said.

It will also throw more light on what appears to be the presence of water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon’s polar areas”.

The mission aims to cover the entire moon and gather as much information as possible. Currently, Chandrayan is going through crucial tests in Bengaluru. It still has to undergo the vibration and acoustic tests. The spacecraft will be subject to heavy vibration first and then the sound of four jet planes will be put together to check its endurance.

However, Chandrayan will not land on the moon due to technical difficulties. The spacecraft would hover around the moon, said the ISRO team working on the moon mission. Chandrayan could provide important leads on the possibility of human habitation on the moon, said Dr Anna Durai. ISRO recently established a 32-meter diameter antenna at Byalalu near Bengaluru to provide tracking and command support for Chandrayaan-I. The antenna and associated systems are the first steps in building the Indian Deep Space Network, which is vital for facilitating a two-way radio communication link between the spacecraft and the earth.

Chandrayan, India’s historic moon mission, will be launched between October 22 and October 26. Director of the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Satellite Centre Dr T K Alex and Project Director of the Chandrayan-I mission Dr Anna Durai informed media persons at Bengaluru on Thursday that the exact date for the launch has not been fixed, but the window period is between October 22 and 26

Dr Alex added that the main objective of this mission was to understand the origin of the moon. Apart from conducting tests on the surface of the moon, the mission also intends to conduct tests on the poles of the moon. Scientists are planning to land a rover on the moon to carry out chemical analysis of the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft undergoing pre-launch tests
Fully integrated Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft (left) and loading it to Thermovac Chamber (right)
Moon Impact Probe integration with Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft

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Shashi Kumar

Read It

Don’t put your mobile closer to your ears until the recipient answers, Because directly after dialing, the mobile phone would use it’s maximum signaling power, which is: 2watts = 33dbi. Please Be Careful. Please use left ear while using cell (mobile), because if you use the right one it may affect brain directly. This is a true fact from Apollo medical team. Please forward to all your well wishers..!

Do not drink APPY FIZZ . It contains cancer causing agent.

Dont eat Mentos beforre or after drinking Coke or Pepsi coz the person will die immediately as the mixture becomes cyanide..

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Keep Visiting and give your Valuable Comments.

Shashi Kumar

Today before you

Today before you say an unkind word –
Think of someone who can’t speak.

Before you complain about the taste of your food –

Think of someone who has nothing to eat.

Before you complain about your husband or wife –

Think of someone who’s crying out to GOD for a companion.

Today before you complain about life –

Think of someone who went too early to heaven.

Before you complain about your children –

Think of someone who desires children but they’re barren.

Before you argue about your dirty house someone didn’t clean or sweep –

Think of the people who are living in the streets.

Before whining about the distance you drive
Think of someone who walks the same distance with their feet.
And when y ou are tired and complain about your job –
Think of the unemployed, the disabled, and those who wish they had your job.
But before you think of pointing the finger or condemning another –
Remember that not one of us is without sin and we all answer to one MAKER.
We all need to be reminded at times
that no matter how bad things are that there are
always others that have it worse than we do.
Love you!